Aging in low- and middle-income countries: chronological versus functional perspectives
National Academy of Sciences volume on the Future Directions for the Demography of Aging (forthcoming)
Nikkil Sudharsanan and David Bloom
The association between socioeconomic status and adult mortality in a developing country: Evidence from a nationally representative study of Indonesian Adults
Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences (2017)
Limited Common Origins of Multiple Adult Health-Related Behaviors: Evidence from U.S. Twins
Social Science & Medicine (2016)
Nikkil Sudharsanan, Jere R. Behrman, and Hans-Peter Kohler
Population aging, macroeconomic changes, and global diabetes prevalence, 1990–2008
Population Health Metrics (2015)
Nikkil Sudharsanan, Mohammed K. Ali, Neil K. Mehta, and KM Venkat Narayan
Diabetes is an important contributor to global morbidity and mortality. While aging populations and macroeconomic changes are often implicated as reasons for the rising global prevalence of diabetes, the contributions of these factors to the growth in diabetes prevalence over the past 20 years are unclear. We used cross-sectional data on age- and sex-specific counts of people with diabetes by country, national population estimates, and country-specific macroeconomic variables for the years 1990, 2000, and 2008. We first conducted a decomposition analysis to quantify the contribution of population aging to the change in global diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2008. Next, we used age-standardization to estimate the contribution of age composition to differences in diabetes prevalence between high-income (HIC) and low-to-middle-income countries (LMICs). Finally, we used non-parametric correlation and fixed-effects regressions to examine the relationship between macroeconomic changes and the change in diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2008. Globally, diabetes prevalence grew by two percentage points between 1990 (7.4 %) and 2008 (9.4 %). Population aging was responsible for 19 % of the growth, with 81 % attributable to increases in the age-specific prevalences. In both LMICs and HICs, about half the growth in age-specific prevalences was from increasing levels of diabetes between ages 45–65 (51 % in HICs and 46 % in LMICs). After age-standardization, the difference in the prevalence of diabetes between LMICs and HICs was larger (1.9 % point difference in 1990; 1.5 % point difference in 2008). We found no evidence that macroeconomic changes were associated with the growth in diabetes prevalence. Population aging explains a minority of the recent growth in global diabetes prevalence. The increase in global diabetes between 1990 and 2008 was primarily due to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes at ages 45–65. We do not find evidence that basic indicators of economic growth, development, globalization, or urbanization were related to rising levels of diabetes between 1990 and 2008.
Race/ethnicity and disability among older Americans
Handbook of Minority Aging (2013)
Neil K. Mehta, Nikkil Sudharsanan, and Irma T. Elo
We begin by presenting a conceptual framework for understanding the determinants of disability at the population level and among U.S. racial and ethnic groups. We next provide a review of recent evidence on racial and ethnic differences in disability, focusing on studies that have used data from nationally representative surveys and the U.S. census. We then focus on evidence for those aged 50 and above.
Our review of the literature indicated that little is known about patterns and trends in racial and ethnic differences in disability during the recent decade (2000-2010). Therefore, we also present empirical evidence from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Although disability encompasses both cognitive and physical manifestations, our focus is on physical disability. Given the increasing number of foreign-born Americans, particular attention is given to the roles of migration and immigration status in influencing racial and ethnic differences in disability.